Monday, May 25, 2020

Disability as Power in the Works of Mary Duffy, Frida...

What do you do without either of your arms? What do you do for a living constrained to a wheelchair? What do you do without control over your own body? Many people in the world today spend their lives wishing things were not as they were, attempting to forget how they are, or trying to change how they are going to be. When disabled people succeed, it is commonly thought that those individuals are amazing for overcoming their disabilities and thriving in life. Is this really what they are doing? The following three women, Mary Duffy, Frieda Kahlo, and Vassar Miller transform their disabilities into the ability to create complex forms of art that force the audience to gain a different perspective on disabilities. Their disabilities†¦show more content†¦As Rosemarie Garland Thomson states, Disability performance art is a genre of self-representation, a form of autobiography, that merges the visual with the narrative. (Thomson 1). Duffy, an Irishwoman, is armless and has a delic ate hand attached directly to one shoulder. She is a survivor of the effects of the Thalidomide drug. This drug was introduced in West Germany in 1956. The Thalidomide drug was used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy, in addition to its uses as a sedative and hypnotic. It was not until 1961 that the drug was taken off the market, being identified as a human teratogen. More than 10,000 infants worldwide were born with malformations attributed to this drug, specifically malformations in the upper extremities. Mary Duffy uses the stare and tell method in her performances. Duffy uses this method by exposing her body in the nude, a body that has always been hidden, and therefore summoning the stare. By presenting her body to the viewer, the visibly disabled performance artist generates the dynamic of staring, the arrested attentiveness that registers difference on the part of the viewer. (Thomson 1). By calling upon the stare, the artist forces the audience to create and contemplate the question of What happened to you?. Therefore Mary Duffy incorporates narrative into her performance as well. She is then able to address issues, answer questions, and challenge commonly misinterpreted questions with her own thoughts and

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Persuation Paper - 862 Words

nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;When watching college athletes participating in their sports, does it ever cross one’s mind that the athletes getting paid? â€Å"The NCAA establishes rules and regulations for universities to follow and one of the most important rules is that student athletes should not receive any money with the exception of scholarships towards their tuition and housing† (Winn). In 1999, the Chronicle of Higher Education surveyed atheletes’ statistics on â€Å"graduation rates for scholarship college athletes in the NCAA’s top Division I.† Fifty-one percent of football players and 41 percent of male basketball players graduated in six years (Meggyesy). NCAA Chief Operating Officer Dan Boggan stated; â€Å"before the eligibility†¦show more content†¦Nobody made a big deal out of Tiger Woods, leaving Stanford early to begin his career in golf. Another athlete, Kobe Bryant, who plays for the L.A. Lakers, went straight out of high s chool to the NBA. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The typical high school/college athlete is distracted by all the glitter of things and money that schools are offering to the athlete rather than being consured about the education the schools can offer. Let’s say an athlete named Edward Thomas is rated number one in the nation in high school basketball. He has every big time college (university) wanting him badly, even a couple of NBA scouts are checking him out. Thomas even has a couple of highlights on Sports Center already. Now he has it in his head he can go straight to the league in the pros and get paid and finish school later. Thomas thinks that he can go to college for two years to develop better skills, and then he would stack up his paper by playing the pros, making $100,000 a year without a college degree. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Not too long ago Michigan University was caught for paying their athletes. This incident happened ten years ago, and finally the University got caught . Ed Martin was the head men’s basketball coach at U of M. Martin was caught paying his players to play for him and win a championship. After they won many championships, he was fired because the school found out what he was doing. But the NCAA found out about it, andShow MoreRelatedCyber Security Is One Of The Hottest Topic Essay1693 Words   |  7 Pagesurgency and ownership of cybersecurity problems afflicting the United States as a nation.DISCUSSION: In the last few years lots of development have been made in cyber security but at the same time anti have also developed at a same pace. These kind of papers gives an idea about the problems as a result of which users may get little more alert for all suck situations. As said above its a non ending battle so all one call do is can take suotable measures to protect itself . The more alert we are more secureRead MoreCritical Metaphor Analysis Approach7941 Words   |  32 Pages VII. APPENDIX I I. ------------------------------------------------- INTRODUCTION Rhetoric is the art of persuading others. Persuation is an interactive communicative process in which a message sender aims to influence the beliefs, attitudes and behaviour of the message receiver( cf. Jowettamp; O’Donnell 1992:21-26) Persuation involves exploiting existing beliefs, attitudes and values rather than introducing completely new ones. A persuader analyses an audience in orderRead MoreEssay on War and the Media2546 Words   |  11 PagesWar of 1955-1975, the American press played crucial roles of reporting until it ended up shifting its tone under the influence of occurrence of some events like the Tet Offensive, the My Lai Massacre, the bombing of Cambodia and leaking of Pentagon papers resulting into lack of trust in the press (Knightly 1975). From the beginning of the war up to present times there have been undying debates over the role of media in the war. The have been various criticisms over the American News Media’s actionsRead MoreEssay on Terrorism in Kenya3144 Words   |  13 Pagesthough the ideology behind the attacks suggests that Kenyan and Kenyans were not involved in the political dynamic that precipitated the attacks. The paper seeks to understand the political, social and cultural variables that have thrown Kenya into the geo-political limelight insofar as the so-called ‘War on Terrorism’ is concerned. The paper ends by discussing the security and economic implications of Kenya’s foreign policy positions as they relate to the evolving Middle-East conflicts. PrecipitatingRead MoreInternship Report on Ztbl20418 Words   |  82 Pages here the payment is not in cash, they issue notes to the employees of bank and issue cheques to the outsiders. The basic functions are to make payments to employees or outsiders from whom we have gotten goods or services, and then record them on papers and also on computer database. The main function of this unit is to summarize the record of transactions and to provide different kinds of reports to the needy department and personals. 7.1.4 Inter Branch Transaction Unit (IBTU): In this unit, I haveRead MoreThe Effect of Student Attitudes and Beliefs on Mathematics Education29432 Words   |  118 Pages 1991). In psychology, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is a theory about the link between attitudes and behaviour. It was proposed by Icek Ajzen as an extension of the theory of reasoned action (TRA). It is one of the most predictive persuation theories. It has been applied to studies of the relations among beliefs, attitudes, behavioural intentions and behaviours in various fields such as advertising, public relations, campaigns health care etc. TPB can cover peoples voluntary behaviourRead MoreMarketing Management130471 Words   |  522 PagesSubhabrata: Gulas, Charles S; Iyer, Easwar: Shades of Green: A multi-dimensional Analysis of Environmetnal Advertising, journal of Advertising, 1995 6. Kumar, Krishna; â€Å"Meeting the Challenges of a Borderless Economy: Needed a Paradigm Shift?†: Working Paper No. 2001/4, Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow (India), presented in Seminar on WTO Allied Issues held at Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow , February 24-25, 2001 . 7. Donovan R; Henley N. Social Marketing: Principles and Practice. Melbourne:

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Every Day Use by Alice Walker Essay - 875 Words

Growing up in the late 60’s as an African American in the South, Alice Walker has had to withstand many of the oppressions black people faced at the time. Her direct experience with the torment of being prejudiced by her skin color and the national movements against this, have been the fundamental basis to the themes in her writings. In her story â€Å"Everyday Use,† she depicts the different understandings of culture between a literate daughter, Dee, and her mother and sister who have not been educated and yet live a traditional simple life together. Through a series of events the author explores the adverse views on heritage among the younger and older generations of African-Americans. Within the historical context, it was time where Blacks†¦show more content†¦As she had discovered a new trend in praising African roots, Dee’s characterization, probably of West African feature, contrasts to Mama’s and Maggie’s Southern appearance. Hence, it was evident Dee had a higher intellectual advantage over her family and was now a symbol of the Black Power Movement. To their surprise, Dee addresses them with a â€Å"Wa-su-zo-Tean-o†, which is a greeting of the Buganda people of Uganda in Eastern Africa meaning â€Å"Good morning.† This information, along with her new style gave out Dee’s reason of change; she was undoubtedly trying to reconnect to her African roots. However, we cannot dismiss the way the author divided the phrase into syllables. It shows that she had trouble pronouncing it meaning her regard for this African heritage was rather forced and deceitful. Thereupon, the man, with hair all over his head and on his chin, says â€Å"Asalamalakim† which stands for â€Å"peace be with you† in Arab. His approach represents how many were embracing Islam as an alternative religion to Christianity, often perceived as the oppressors’ religion. Before Mama could even react, Dee snapped a picture with her Polaroid camera. The camera itself implies technological evolution and thus an evident disjunction of a generation to the next. Avoiding being in the picture herself, Dee is trying to frame her cultural history. She was building a faà §ade where she would display the pictures as proof of her black lineage, showing the house, the yard and her mother,Show MoreRelatedPsychology in Every Day Use by Alice Walker1532 Words   |  7 Pagesand different race wasn’t likely his top priority especially in an equal playing field but, using the basic concepts could give a new perspective on these excluded individuals, and the unique problems they may have faced. In Alice Walker’s short story â€Å"Everyday Use†, from the psychoanalytical perspective, the three women in the story represent the tri-part division of the mind, evidenced by their actions and the descriptions of each within the story. Together, each tri-part illustrates whatRead MoreEveryday Use - the Gift of Family945 Words   |  4 Pages Everyday Use is a short story that teaches a value lesson of heritage, inheritance, the past, and one’s family. For some the lesson maybe perceived as an illustration to develop the natural instinct of valuing our family and our past as objects of everyday use. However, the lesson that Alice Walker conveys to her readers is to understand that the value of heritage is within the eye of the beholder. Within this paper I will explain the strategies; I think the writer uses to convey particularRead MoreAlice Walker s Everyday Use906 Words   |  4 PagesHidden Messages A Critique of Alice Walker’s â€Å"Everyday Use† Title Often authors use the titles of their writing to portray a part of the story that will eventually come up, or to give an underlying message about what’s going on in the story. In Alice Walker’s short story, Everyday Use, she uses a title that isn’t blatantly seen within the story, but is explained through different aspects of the dialogue and actions of the characters. Walker could’ve chosen to explain the title more obviously withinRead MoreIn 1973 Alice Walker wrote a short story called Everyday Use. This story is told in first person by800 Words   |  4 PagesIn 1973 Alice Walker wrote a short story called Everyday Use. This story is told in first person by mama and in set in the Deep South. Now, Alice Walker is a very well known name when it comes to writing and acting. She began her life in Eatonton, Georgian and was the youngest of eight children. Her family made their living by sharecropping and she says that, â€Å"It was great fun being cute. But then, one day, it ended.She had an accident with a BB gun and it almost blinded her at the age of eightRead Morealice walker in search of the garden1376 Words   |  6 Pageswomen’s suppressed talent, of the artistic skills and talents that they lost because of slavery and a forced way of life. Walker builds up her arguments from historical events as well as the collective experiences of African Americans, including her own. She uses these experiences to back up her arguments formed from recollections of various African American characters and events. Walker points out that a great part of her mother’s and grandmothers’ lives have been suppressed because of their sad, darkRead MoreAnalysis Of The Flowers, By Alice Walker1525 Words   |  7 PagesGrowing up in the South and living life by working every day outside, and growing crops was how Alice Walker grew up. She has written stories about her life, and stories that have had an impact on her life based on how she grew up. The two short stories The Flowers and Everyday Use have a common theme of feeling comfortable, safe, and at peace when one is home. Walker uses diction, syntax, and characterization to develop this common theme in her writing. A house is a safe comfortable place whereRead More Everyday Use by Alice Walker Essay643 Words   |  3 PagesEveryday Use by Alice Walker In the story Everyday Use, by Alice Walker, the value of ones culture and heritage are defined as a part of life that should not be looked upon as history but as a living existence of the past. Walker writes of the conflict between two Black cultures. Dee and Maggie are sisters whom do not share the same ideals. Mama is torn between two children with different perspectives of what life truly means. In the story, Walker describes the trial and tribulationsRead MoreNineteen Fifty-five Essay1669 Words   |  7 PagesEssay question: What message do you think Alice Walker is trying to convey in the short story Nineteen fifty-five? In Nineteen fifty-five, a short story written by Alice Walker, there seems to be a variation of different messages that she is trying to convey. As an author she relates the story to real life issues as well as using the character Gracie Mae to highlight the way in which black people have been exploited by whites. The story is set over quite a vast timespan, from 1955 toRead MoreThe Usability of Symbolism in Everyday Use by Alice Walker Essay1230 Words   |  5 PagesSymbolism is a technique that author’s uses to bring out the main importance of an object, but more emphasized details are being extracted in the usage of it. Alice Walker uses quilts, for example, to symbolize a â€Å"bond between women† (Spark Notes) a relationship between women, that would get passed down from generation to generation. In this story, symbolism plays a big role that makes this more attracted to the reader’s eyes. The characters such as the following: Mama Johnson, Dee, and Maggie allRead MoreOvercoming Prejudices and Self Acceptance-the Color Purple1401 Words   |  6 PagesOvercoming Prejudices for Self Acceptance Throughout Alice Walker’s novel, The Color Purple, the main character, Celie, reveals all of the hardships she has endured during her life. Celie confides in her younger sister, Nettie, and God to express the way she feels in certain situations. As the story progresses, Celie eventually finds her voice and breaks away from all the men who oppressed her during her life. For the duration of the novel, prejudice becomes a reoccurring theme. Not only does

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Critical Essay Their Eyes Were Watching God free essay sample

Critical Essay: Their Eyess Were Watching God Essay, Research Paper Critical Essay: THEIR Eyess WERE WATCHING GOD It all begins with parents. However, although genetic sciences play a cardinal function in what sort of individual one becomes, environment is the other major factor that influences a individual? s development. The people a individual meets and the experiences one has are really of import elements impacting development. With the three matrimonies Janie has, she develops as a adult female. In each matrimony she learns valuable lessons, taking to increasingly break relationships, recognizing how a individual is to populate his/her life. In Their Eyess Were Watching God, by Zora Neale Hurston, Janie? s three matrimonies lead her to self-knowledge and therefore to fulfilment. Janie? s matrimony to Login Killicks provides her with the realisation that matrimonies make non needfully vouch common love. Her pre-marital construct of love and matrimony is symbolized in the natural brotherhood of bee and flower: She was stretched on her back beneath the pear tree soaking in the alto chant of the sing bees, the gold of the Sun and the puffing breath of the zephyr when the unhearable voice of it all came to her. She saw a dust-bearing bee sink into the sanctum of a bloom ; the thousand sister-calyxes arch to run into the love embracing and the enraptured tremble of the tree from root to tiniest subdivision creaming in every flower and foaming with delectation. So this was a matrimony! She had been summoned to lay eyes on a disclosure. ( p.11 ) In this dream, Janie conveys her thought of matrimony being the apogee of love, of two separate entities going one and turning together. To the remainder of society, as represented by Login Killicks and her grandma, matrimony is non about love, but is instead a concern trade that merely includes protection and reproduction. Her grandma says, ? ? Tain? T Logan Killicks Ah wants you to hold, babe, it? s protection. ? ( p.15 ) These beliefs run contrary to everything that Janie has wished and hoped a matrimony to be: ? Ah wants things sweet wid mah matrimony lak when you sit under a pear tree and think. ? ( p.24 ) , a matrimony that is filled with an equal and physical love. When she inquiries her grandma, Nanny continually indoctrinates her with positions of matrimony she does non accept. She eventually relents and marries Login Killicks. As her matrimony unfolds, Janie Begins to oppugn herself and why she had yielded to positions that she neer believed in. ? Did marriage stop the cosmic solitariness of the unmated? Did marriage compel like the Sun the twenty-four hours? ? ( p.21 ) . Finally, she comes to the realisation that, ? matrimony did non do love. Janie? s foremost dream was dead, so she became a woman. ? ( p.25 ) In her matrimony to Joe Starks, Janie shortly learns that her new muliebrity serves merely to reflect his place and wealth. From the beginning of their relationship, marks indicate that Joe is non needfully the love Janie is looking for. ? On the train the following twenty-four hours, Joe didn? t make many addresss with rimes to her, but he bought her the best things the meatman had # 8230 ; ? ( p.34 ) The consequence money has on Joe? s life is already evident. He buys her merely material things because he is ownership-oriented. Janie notices the job early in the relationship and confronts Joe about it, stating? it jus? looks lak it keeps us in some manner we ain? t natural wid one nother. You? se ever off talkin? and fixin? things, and Ah feels lak Ah? m jus? markin clip. Hope it shortly gits over. ? ( p.46 ) His response greatly depicts his position of her. ? Over, Janie? I god, Ah ain? t even started good. Ah told you in Delawares really beginnin? dat Ah aimed tuh be a large voice. You oughta be glad, cause digital audiotapes make uh large adult female outa you. ? ( p.46 ) Janie realizes that she can non be unfastened with Joe ; he is no longer the adult male she had met by the H2O pump. Joe has many of his ain involvements, none of which are concerned with J anie. ? She found out that she had a host of ideas she had neer expressed to him # 8230 ; She was salvaging up feelings for some adult male that she had neer seen. ? ( p.72 ) He continues to handle Janie as a contemplation of himself when he wants her to appear attractive ; love at merely a material degree. ? Jody told her to dress up and stand in the shop all that flushing # 8230 ; and he didn? t mean for cipher else? s married woman to rank with her. ? ( p.41 ) Joe besides suppresses Janie, both as a adult female and a human being, and sets a bound on her self-realization, handling her more like an object than a adult female. He lumps adult females in with mere things: ? Person got to believe for adult females and chilun and poulets and cattles. ? ( p.71 ) All in all, throughout her matrimony she learns that wealth does non convey felicity. Finally recognizing that she is merely another ownership of Joe Starks, she says, ? You done lived wid me for 20 old ages and you don? t half cognize me atall. And you could hold but you was so busy worshippin? de plants of yo? ain custodies, and cuffin? folks around in their heads till you didn? t see uh whole pile uh things yuh could have. ? ( p.86 ) After Joe dies, she besides concludes that she had been losing something in her life, and realizes the following adult male she meets is perfect for her. Janie? s development as a adult female becomes complete after life and larning with Vergible? Tea Cake? Woods. Tea Cake catalyzes the concluding phase of development of Janie as a adult female. From Tea Cake, Janie learns to love and what it feels like to be loved. He represents everything Janie has of all time wanted in a matrimony: She couldn? Ts make him look like any other adult male to her. He looked like the love ideas to be oppressing scent out of the universe with his footfalls. Crushing aromatic herbs with every measure he took. Spice hung about him. He was a glimpse from God. ( p.106 ) Tea Cake non merely encourages her growing to independence, but contributes to it by learning her accomplishments such as hunting and draughtss, while at the same clip, praising her for her endowments. He farther proves this by taking her fishing, runing, dance, and horticulture with her. For a piece, Janie and Tea Cake even work the Fieldss together. For the first clip in her life, Janie enjoys life because she experiences what it feels to be loved. She says ? # 8230 ; we ain? T got nothin? tuh do but make our work and come place and love? ( p.133 ) . Tea Cake has none of the fiscal stableness of the first two work forces, but has an openness of head that allows Janie to get away from people? s outlooks. He makes Janie recognize that she must make up ones mind what she wants out of life, and discovers she hated the restrictions Nanny imposed on her self-realization: ? Nanny had taken the biggest thing God of all time made, the skyline # 8230 ; and squeeze it into such a small spot of a thing that she could bind it about her granddaughter # 8217 ; s make out tight plenty to choke her. ? ( p.89 ) From her matrimony with Tea Cake, Janie eventually lives her dream of love and believes it is something really few people of all time acquire to see. Janie? s matrimony with Tea Cake brings her to a concluding phase of self-fulfillment. Janie clearly progresses in her development as a adult female through the matrimonies she has had with three really different work forces. Logan Killicks is her starting topographic point and from him she learns that she was losing a common love. Although Janie feels Joe Starks would supply her with what she thinks is love, it is merely a show to win her over, finally giving manner to his subterranean motivation of constructing a name for himself. His decease gives Janie a new opportunity, leting Tea Cake the privilege of being the following to get married Janie and the chance to learn her what it is to love and to be loved. Janie began the procedure of going a adult female when her first dream was broken and continues and completes her growing as a individual through the joys and sorrows, the letdowns and fufillments of her three matrimonies.

Friday, April 10, 2020

Christianity And Politics Essays - Monotheistic Religions

Christianity And Politics Christianity as a Way of Life The descriptions of the Roman Empire and state authority offered in Christian texts seems to be one that is oppressive. Since the state often punished Christians for disturbing the peace, the Empire is often shown as merciless and callous. However, texts seem to suggest that the Empire did not treat Christians any differently from the other citizens of the state. Christianity in itself was not illegal under Roman law, so Christians were not targeted specifically as a group. Then, the popular portrayal of early Christianity as a mass political movement that the Romans dedicated much resources to thwart seems implausible. Although popular knowledge of early Christians emphasize their persecution and severe ostracism within the Roman Empire, a closer study of Roman law reveals that Christianity and being Christian were not crimes in and of themselves. As a matter of fact, citizens of the Roman Empire were free to worship any god. Even their proclamations about Jesus were not considered heretical. On the contrary, it was not out of the ordinary to declare a human to be divine. After all, the emperor himself was thought by many to have been divine. In addition, the secret meetings of Christians to celebrate the Lords Supper often portrayed, as highly covert and something the Christians attended in fear of being found out, also were not illegal. As a matter of fact, most of the rituals and beliefs associated with being a Christian in ancient times were not deemed criminal. In actuality, the Roman Empire punished Christians for breaking laws that were applicable to every Roman citizen. While Christians were not sought out as a group in particular, it is true that individual Christians did suffer punishment in the hands of Roman authorities. Much of the punishments imposed on them were for criminal activities. As Bart Ehrman points out, while civil law was very developed, criminal legislation was rarely created. For the most part, governors were responsible for exacting punishment as they deemed necessary. For instance, Christians were not reprimanded for worshiping God but for violating laws on worshiping the emperor and the state gods. Most often, Christians were persecuted for disturbing the peace. Christians in the ancient world seem to project an image of exclusivity and isolation. Their communities were tight-knit and exacted extreme demands on their members. Early Christians were called to abandon their families to join the family of Christ. People left their families to join other brothers and sisters in their faith. Thecla is an example of this phenomenon as she is seen abandoning everything to be a disciple of Paul. As Ehrman points out, while this alternative way of life showed Christians new possibilities, the citizenry saw this as disturbing. While, it is documented that Christians suffered directly or indirectly for their beliefs as time passed, in its beginnings, Christianity was not considered a movement of mass proportions and influence that merited much attention from the state. On the contrary, Christianity was seen as just another cult that may cause some disruptions but would ultimately fade away. It can be argued that it was Nero who made it legitimate to criminalize being Christian even though he himself persecuted Christians for criminal acts only, as he was the one who punished Christians widely. He simply took advantag e of the growing distrust and disdain for Christians. Historical data seems to show that, at least in its inception and very early years, Christianity was not considered a politically motivated movement. First, they lacked the influence to command such attention. And secondly, they lacked the sheer number of people necessary to create a political movement at the time. For the most part, Christians were persecuted for breaking the law and not for their heretical ideas. Perhaps this can be further illuminated by a study of early Christian texts which laid out rules of conduct for early Christians. According to Christian texts, God instructed his followers to obey the law. Romans 13 proclaims Let every person be subject to the governing authoritiesfor those authorities that exist have been instituted by God. Therefore whoever resists authority resists was God has appointed This passage shows that Paul, a leader of the ancient Church

Monday, March 9, 2020

Why Astrology Lost Its Place in the Academic World

Why Astrology Lost Its Place in the Academic World Hashtag: #Signos (Portuguese for â€Å"Signs†) Through most of its history, astrology, a study of zodiac signs and its influence on our growth, personalities, and daily lives was highly regarded as â€Å"science†, a discipline that is closely associated with astronomy and mathematics.   A scholarly tradition, astrology was then accepted in political and academic contexts and a valuable system for a predicting astronomical event in many cultures throughout the centuries.   For instance, since the Arabs during the 10th century believed that the motions of celestial bodies affect life on earth and future events can be predicted by studying their movements, they were advanced in these areas and made significant contributions to the science of astronomy. Wearing the Trappings of Science Astrology was popular and continued to flourish during the 11th century. The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans were also active in this field and built exceptional observatories to improve observation and understanding of celestial bodies. Sophisticated astronomical instruments such as the â€Å"astrolabe† (left image) were developed to enhance observation of the sky, calculation of latitudes, time and motion of the sun, stars, and the signs of the zodiac, and boost the accuracy of astrologer’s prediction. However, the legitimacy of the study that is now recognized as â€Å"pseudoscience† or a belief system that is â€Å"incorrectly presented as scientific†, was called into question by 17th-century scientific concepts and astronomical models.   In particular, the heliocentric model of the solar system where the Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun, significantly affect the credibility of the traditional geocentric (Earth-centered solar system) chart where the position of the zodiacal signs and horoscope are based. Read more information here: Unacceptable Words in Academic World Academic and Intellectual Credentials Why the South Lost the Civil War Computer Science Thesis The Scientific Basis for Defining Seasons Zodiac Signs and Horoscope Are not Science According to literature, although astrology relies on a scientific tool and complex mathematics such as those used to measure planetary motion in astronomy, the study is not a reliable predictive tool as it does not adhere to any valid scientific method and cannot be accurately tested.   Moreover, since astrology fails to abide by the standards of evidence or characteristic of most legitimate science, it eventually lost its place in the academic world.   The scientific community also disowned astrology, as it cannot provide a precise explanation on how the positions of celestial objects could actually affect people and influence events on our planet. Astrology according to Karl Popper lacks falsifiability or refutability, the ability that separates science from non-science.   Contrary to Popper, Thomas Kuhn argued that the non-empirical process and concepts involved in astrology make it unscientific. This is because failed predictions and inability to explain why horoscope fails do not necessarily make them violators of scientific principles. In reality, since astrology is not amenable research (see Research Paper), most astrologers do not investigate and merely adhere to rules and guidelines for a field of study fraught with known limitations. Instead of correcting a failure and revising a flawed astrological hypothesis in a meaningful way, most astrologers explain away failures.   According to Kuhn, even if the stars actually influence human lives and the world around us, individuals who do not solve puzzles are not practitioners of science.   Similarly, due to the presence of numerous fallacious logic and poor reasoning in astrological literature, philosopher Edward James view astrology as an irrational field of study. For instance, most astrological writings in James analysis are not coherent, blatant, uncorroborated by evidence, reluctant to pursue arguments, no sense of a hierarchy of reasons and incapable of satisfying the demands of legitimate reasoning.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Kant Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Kant - Essay Example Evidently, the rationalists had disregarded perception as utter confused thinking that consequently rendered their theories as mere speculation, impossible of verification or refute. On the other hand, empiricist who theorized that people have access to the actual world in perceptive sense, believed that what people perceive are ideas that manifest in persons through things outside of them. For example, ideas are manifestations of impressions. Consequently, individuals only know their own ideas (Lawhead, pp. 123) According to Kant, he believes that people have access only to appearances. This does not imply access to illusory appearances. However, Kant believes that appearances provide people with the foundation of knowledge. Moreover, the mind contributes to experience due to understanding and the constituent pure categories. Moreover, an active role is played by the mind as well as its ability to superimpose experience on specific categories that result to knowledge. Kant further argues that people cannot know the ‘thing in itself’. To this end, he goes beyond implying the inaccessibility of ‘reality.’ Over and above this, he implies it is impossible to experience anything beyond the function of the mind. Moreover, it justifies how people acquire knowledge. The basic difference between ‘extension’ and ‘mind’ contributes the problem as well backtracked to Descartes. The immaterial nature of the mind rouses the challenge of bridging the disconnect between the outside world and inner mind. Hume believes that mind is basically passive while Descartes believes that in aid in intellectual acts. On the other hand, Kant simulates between empiricism and rationalism. Foremost, he supports Hume by stating that knowledge is impossible without experience. Secondly, he agrees with rationalists by stating that the mind plays a vital part to knowledge. On the